when is it necessary to cite a source?

If you do not cite the quotes used, you risk committing plagiarism. Common knowledge is basically a fact that practically everyone knows, like the fact that George Washington was a U.S. president. Cite well, and you may forever expunge the phrase “It is said” from your academic paper. Something demonstrated to exist or known to have existed. When you cite sources properly, you leave no question in your readers’ minds regarding your point. I'll be the first to admit there is a lot of gray area when it comes to citation, but if you're ever in doubt: cite. Citation, referencing is very useful with software. It is necessary to cite a source because _____. You are better off quoting and citing the actual source! Paraphrasing is when you create your own wording of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else without directly quoting. Grace Fleming, M.Ed., is a senior academic advisor at Georgia Southern University, where she helps students improve their academic performance and develop good study skills. The main way to do this is to cite authors that agree with the points you are making. See answers (2) Ask for details ; Follow Report Because by doing so, you avoid going to jail due to plagiarism. Here's a list of situations when your teacher would expect a citation: You make a specific claim that could be challenged--like London is the foggiest city in the world. Ensure that you provide the necessary copyright information in the description of the video. However, if you create a graph or chart out of information you gathered from another source, you must cite the source from which you extracted the data. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. You can, however, cite authors who do not agree with your points, ... keep the quotation as brief as possible and quote only when it is necessary. Plot of the subject of the article: If the subject of the article is a book or film or other artistic work, it is unnecessary to cite a source in describing events or other details. Here are some guidelines to help you navigate citation practices. How many times have you heard a teacher or professor say this? This is the easiest rule to understand. You can cite references within the text of your presentation slide using the same APA format for in-text citations (Author, Date) as in a written essay. Quote a source; Paraphrase information from a source; Summarize information from a source; Quote: To quote something means that you are using someone else’s exact words in your text. First of all, summarizing and paraphrasing are two related practices but they are not the same. For example, if you want to claim that the Patriot Act has been an important tool for national security, you should be prepared to give examples of how it has helped and how experts have claimed that it has helped. "Demonstrated" is a hint here. It is necessary to cite a source because Use of Citations in Writings: Citations in writing refer to giving credit to authors whose information is being used. Reference list citations are highly variable depending on the source. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. How to Cite a Book (Title, not chapter) in APA Format. Be aware that the consequences of plagiarismcan be serious. and there might be different numbers provided by different organizations, each with an agenda about gun laws. Eating while driving is more dangerous than talking on the cell phone while driving. Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research by Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. If by "based on" you mean you've drawn your own conclusions. This may sound easy, but it's actually tough sometimes to know when you need to back up a statement with evidence and when it is fine to leave a statement unsupported. "Write an essay and back it up with facts.". Always cite your sources whenever you. Examples of information that would not need to be cited include: Some quick facts, such as statistics, are trickier. How to Cite Different Source Types. They are found in bibliographies and reference lists and are also collected in article and book databases. In-text citation doesn’t vary depending on source type, unless the author is unknown. The only risk in doing this is littering your paper with unnecessary citations that will drive your teacher crazy. The other thing that makes this determination difficult might be that what seems new and insightful to you might be common knowledge to an expert in the field. But if I were to talk about specific levels of student loan debt, or what politicians are … Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) in the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230).You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words. There is more than one way to plagiarize When to Cite a Source. The differences can be subtle, so make sure you know the rules of the style you are using, and be consistent. the idea, work, or material is someone else's it is proper to give the author credit it is academically correct all of the above When to Cite a Source You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. Sometimes there will be numerous organizations listed as being responsible for publishing the source. For a discussion of why to cite sources, see Ethical Use of Sources. Don’t cite when you are stating common knowledge. When writing an essay it is often necessary to refer to outside sources for more information. Cite when you are directly quoting. Just use it to educate yourself. Book referencing is the most basic style; it matches the template above, minus the URL section. Several Reasons Why You Should Cite Sources You do not need to citecommon knowledge 6. You need to be prepared to show such skeptics that you have experts on your side, too. Paraphrasing is similar to summarizing, however summaries only include the essential ideas of a work, while paraphrasing includes more details. Mention someone’s ideas. Conclusions (containing formerly cited ideas) If you have already cited the ideas earlier in your paper that you are summarizing in your conclusion, you do not need to cite them again. But in this case, the authors that S has cited are also not the primary source, since they have also taken the idea from other multiple sources. Log in to add a comment Answer 3.5 /5 3. txdi08 +4 grendeldekt and 4 others learned from this answer then you wouldn't need to put a citation for the conclusion you draw - that's YOUR work. If you are confused by it, you are not alone – in fact you might be doing some good thinking. Furthermore, by citing, you can easily use active language and avoid raising the dreaded red flag of passivity to journal editors and reviewers. No, however it is necessary that you cite the source if you copied it. That information is owned by the author. I usually cite the source when including relevant data, information, and past results that are identified essential for my manuscript. The fact that you are not citing it helps the reader understand that this portion of the work is your unique contribution developed through your own research efforts. Wikipedia entries, which are tertiary sources, are already a summary of what is known about the topic. Most of the ideas used to support your research should be put into your own words; otherwise known as paraphrasing 5. Explanation; When you introduce facts that you have found in a source. Publication Formats and the Information Lifecycle. Think of it in terms of the reasons we cite sources. If you're not really certain about something being common knowledge, you could give it the little sister test. Don’t cite when what you are saying is your own insight. You got an idea from somebody else, even through email or conversation. Here's a list of situations when your teacher would expect a citation: Although there may be interesting facts that you have believed or know for many years, you will be expected to provide proof of those facts when you're writing a paper for school. APA requires that the entire paper be double-spaced, including all the lines in the reference list. You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. Although it is important to cite any ideas retrieved from sources, such as paraphrased explanations, quotations, statistics, of figures. book, article, chapter, web site). What you do have to cite is if you use the book or website author's unique political theories to fuel your work. The sky is blue, college is hard, student loan debt is a problem – all of these things are common knowledge. Paraphrasing is when you restate what the original author said in your own words and in your own tone. Some trees do not shed their leaves in the fall. Citations are a short way to uniquely identify a published work (e.g. Why Cite Sources? Failing to cite your sources also equates to plagiarism 3. Many citation styles use in-text citations in parentheses directly after the quote, while others require you to use footnotes. Is it really necessary for me to cite this source every time I mention it in this paragraph? You can never get into hot water if you cite a source when you don't have to. Citations in your paper are necessary to provide credit to the proper sources; failure to cite properly could result in plagiarism. It's one trick that teachers use to make sure you actually use some references when you write a paper, instead of simply offering a list of your opinions. You quote somebody. Be sure to use quotation marks and cite your source. What is common knowledge is sometimes difficult to discern. But if it's somebody else's work, you need to cite it. Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries, Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. So how do you know when you do not need to cite a source? Using another person’s ideas without crediting them equates to plagiarism 2. Too many citations will give your teacher the impression that you are attempting to stretch your paper to a certain word count! You’ve likely been told at some point that you can’t cite Wikipedia, or any encyclopedia for that matter, in your scholarly work. Remember to cite sources for direct quotations, paraphrased materials, and sources of facts (such as market share data in the example slide). This is the easiest way to avoid troubles with the citation and other difficulties that may arise while writing! A well-known fact is something that many people know, but it is also something that a reader could look up easily if he/she didn't know. It's best to plant flowers in the early spring. You need to acknowledge the source of an idea unless it is common knowledge in your subject area. Many U.S. citizens concerned that it violates privacy rights won’t agree with you, and they will be able to find commentary that the Patriot Act has been more harmful to the nation than helpful. That means they don't know when it is proper to cite a source, and when it's OK not to use a citation. Summarizing is when you read a text, consider the main points, and provide a shorter version of what you learned. If you are stating word-for-word what someone else has already written, you must put quotes around those words and you must give credit to the original author. You make a specific claim that is not common knowledge like the Indian Ocean is the youngest of the world's major oceans. The information you share when you cite a source is called a citation, or sometimes a reference. In answering this question, first consider: APA style strives for clarity. Politicians are campaigning on it. But in fact, there are many gray areas around citation, and learning how to apply citation guidelines takes practice and education. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, More Examples of Common Knowledge or Well-Known Facts, Tips for Typing an Academic Paper on a Computer, Proofreaders' and Teachers' Correction Marks, 4 Tips for Using Textual Evidence for Short Stories, M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia, B.A., History, Armstrong State University. Many trees shed their leaves in the fall. Paraphrase someone’s ideas. citing a ‘source within a source’. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The reason is that such entries are meant to prepare you to do research, not be evidence of your having done it. A guideline that can help with deciding whether or not to cite facts is to determine whether the same data is repeated in multiple sources. It is necessary to cite a source because _____. (In addition to citing the source, you must also indicate that the words are a quotation, and not your own words.) But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. As you learned in The Purpose of Academic Argument, research involves forming opinions and insights around what you learn. Offer an authoritative (expert) opinion--like "germs cause pneumonia.". from another place. Summarize a source. When you include another author's work, you must always cite the source of the original information. You may be citing several sources that have helped you learn, but at some point you must integrate your own opinion, conclusion, or insight into the work. For example, the following sentence puts information about the author and work before the quotation: You may also want to describe the author(… If you get an answer, it could be common knowledge! American Chestnut trees are nearly extinct.

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